goniometer kit physical therapy

What is a Goniometer and How to Use It

A goniometer is an instrument used in physiotherapy to make evaluations of the flexion of the joints of the body, measuring the angles. These are marked with degrees, cm, and inches. Goniometers are made up of a fixed area, a moving area, and the fulcrum; there are different sizes that can be used on different parts of the body. They can be made of different materials, such as flexible plastic, stainless steel or ABS plastic.

Types of Goniometers

what is a gooniometer

what is a goniometer

Goniometric Assessment

To perform a goniometric assessment, it must be considered that the fixed area must be in the body point from which the measurement will be made, at that point the fulcrum (point of attachment of the goniometer) will be located and the mobile area will move according to the mobile segment of the body to assess joint movement. It is a simple technique, but it will depend on the knowledge of the body points, the type of joint movement and the precise reading of the goniometer.

Types of joint movements


Flexion: approaching movement of the bones that form a joint.



Adduction: movement towards the center line of the body



Extension: movement of separation of the bones that form the joint



Pronation: with the elbow flexed: inward turning of the elbow, due to a movement of internal rotation (palm down).


Abduction: movement away from the center line of the body


Supination: with the elbow in flexion: outward turning of the elbow, due to an external rotation movement (palm up)


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